宮頸與子宮的哪些畸形會引起不孕?為什么?

來源:亚博网页登陆-亚博手机版网页登陆有限公司日期: 2020-09-14 11:10閱讀(du)量: 2489

  胚(pei)(pei)胎期(qi)雙側苗(miao)勒(le)管 (Mtillerian duct)中(zhong)段(duan)(duan)發(fa)(fa)育并融(rong)合(he)成子宮(gong),下段(duan)(duan)發(fa)(fa)育并融(rong)合(he)成宮(gong)頸及陰道上段(duan)(duan)。在(zai)胚(pei)(pei)胎發(fa)(fa)育過程中(zhong)如(ru)果(guo)遇到致(zhi)畸(ji)因素的影響,阻礙(ai)了(le)(le)雙側苗(miao)勒(le)管的融(rong)合(he)和(he)發(fa)(fa)育,就可能造(zao)成宮(gong)頸及子宮(gong)畸(ji)形或發(fa)(fa)育不(bu)(bu)全。除(chu)了(le)(le)造(zao)成解(jie)剖(pou)學異(yi)常(chang)外,還(huan)常(chang)伴有卵巢發(fa)(fa)育不(bu)(bu)全和(he)功(gong)能低下,而(er)合(he)并無(wu)排卵性不(bu)(bu)孕(yun)。
   
   常見的這類畸形包括:
   1.宮(gong)頸缺如及(ji)宮(gong)頸閉(bi)鎖: 為(wei)副中腎管尾(wei)端發(fa)育停滯所致,可合并陰道(dao)上端閉(bi)鎖和(he)子宮(gong)發(fa)育畸形。
   2.先天性宮頸管狹窄: 由于母親在妊(ren)娠(shen)早期服用(yong)過己烯(xi)雌(ci)酚(fen),其女兒到青(qing)春期出現陰道腺(xian)病,宮頸狹窄和糜爛,宮頸上皮間變(bian)、腺(xian)癌或透明細胞癌,稱(cheng)為己烯(xi)雌(ci)酚(fen)綜合征(diethyl一(yi)stilbestrol syndrome)。
   3.宮(gong)頸(jing)角(jiao)度異常;子宮(gong)過度前傾或(huo)前屈,后(hou)傾或(huo)后(hou)屈導致宮(gong)頸(jing)過度后(hou)仰或(huo)上仰,伴有宮(gong)頸(jing)管狹窄(zhai),痛經,月經失調(diao),無排卵等。
   4.雙(shuang)宮(gong)頸畸形為(wei)雙(shuang)側副中(zhong)腎(shen)管中(zhong)段(duan)未融合(he)所致,故常合(he)并(bing)雙(shuang)角子宮(gong)、雙(shuang)子宮(gong)或縱隔子宮(gong)畸形。
   5.先天性宮(gong)頸(jing)延長癥伴有宮(gong)頸(jing)管狹窄和子宮(gong)發育不良。
   6.單宮(gong)頸雙(shuang)角子(zi)宮(gong)、雙(shuang)子(zi)宮(gong)或(huo)縱隔子(zi)宮(gong)畸形。
   7.單角(jiao)(jiao)子宮(gong)及殘角(jiao)(jiao)子宮(gong)。
   
   由(you)于(yu)(yu)以(yi)上畸(ji)(ji)形(xing)的存在,可能(neng)造成宮(gong)(gong)頸不(bu)能(neng)輸(shu)送精(jing)子,子宮(gong)(gong)不(bu)能(neng)容(rong)受精(jing)液和(he)精(jing)子,從(cong)而不(bu)能(neng)使精(jing)子獲能(neng)和(he)受孕;子宮(gong)(gong)形(xing)態(tai)和(he)容(rong)積異常(chang)以(yi)及子宮(gong)(gong)肌層發(fa)育(yu)不(bu)良,不(bu)利于(yu)(yu)孕卵著床、植人和(he)胚胎(tai)(tai)發(fa)育(yu),容(rong)易導(dao)致(zhi)早期妊娠流產;畸(ji)(ji)形(xing)子宮(gong)(gong)不(bu)利于(yu)(yu)胎(tai)(tai)盤附著和(he)發(fa)育(yu),容(rong)易導(dao)致(zhi)胎(tai)(tai)盤位置異常(chang)、胎(tai)(tai)兒宮(gong)(gong)內發(fa)育(yu)遲緩或(huo)早產。      

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